Permanent Magnets, Superconductors and Thermoelectric Materials
New generation of permanent magnets (AlNiCo, Samarium Cobalt and Neodymium Iron Boron) has improved the performances of magnetic systems, engines, pumps, bearings, picks ups, alternators (for turbines) and has allowed newer, more compact and high speed electric engines. With the help of permanent magnets we can data, move robots and can also sense sound.
Superconductors will allow the electrical current to flow without any loss of energy (Though, in practice, an ideal superconductor is very hard to produce) and this type of current is supercurrent. It should be cooled below certain threshold temperature, the material dramatically loses all electrical resistance. The goal of having levitating trains and cars, logistic systems and even sports, relies on the use of room temperature superconductors.
Thermo electric category of materials can alternatively be used to refrigerate. Their presence allows cooling without moving parts with high reliability. The efficiency of thermoelectric cooling modules (called Peltier modules) is low and an increase could change the world of refrigeration of cars (air conditioning systems), homes, freezers, coolers and chillers.